Water Transport Strategies in Historic Rome

With the construction of the first elevated aqueduct in Rome, the Aqua Anio Vetus in 273 BC, individuals who lived on the city’s foothills no longer had to be dependent solely on naturally-occurring spring water for their requirements. When aqueducts or springs weren’t easily accessible, people dwelling at raised elevations turned to water taken from underground or rainwater, which was made available by wells and cisterns. To furnish water to Pincian Hill in the early 16th century, they applied the new strategy of redirecting the stream from the Acqua Vergine aqueduct’s underground network. As originally constructed, the aqueduct was provided along the length of its channel with pozzi (manholes) constructed at regular intervals. Whilst these manholes were provided to make it much easier to maintain the aqueduct, it was also feasible to use containers to pull water from the channel, which was exercised by Cardinal Marcello Crescenzi from the time he obtained the property in 1543 to his passing in 1552. r-105__70191.jpg He didn’t get a sufficient quantity of water from the cistern that he had manufactured on his residential property to gather rainwater. That is when he decided to create an access point to the aqueduct that ran underneath his residential property.

An Introduction to Hydrostatics

From its housing vessel to other components it comes in contact with, liquid in equilibrium exerts force on every single thing it touches. There exist two kinds of force, hydrostatic energies and external forces. When pushing against a level wall, the fluid applies equal force at different points on the wall. Liquid in equilibrium will apply vertical pressure at every point of an object’s exterior when that subject is fully submerged in the liquid. These vertical forces are buoyancy, and the concept on its own is more fully described by Archimedes’principle. Liquid acted on by hydrostatic force is then subject to hydrostatic pressure at the point of contact. The containers that make up a city’s fountains, wells, and its water supply system are applications of these techniques.

Decorative Garden Fountains And Their Use In Minoa

Archaeological excavations in Minoan Crete in Greece have uncovered some types of conduits.

They were used for water supply as well as removal of storm water and wastewater. They were for the most part built from clay or rock. When prepared from clay, they were usually in the format of canals and round or rectangular pipes. Amidst these were terracotta piping which were U shaped or a shorter, cone-like shape which have just showed up in Minoan culture. Clay conduits were used to circulate water at Knossos Palace, running up to three meters below the floor surfaces. Along with dispersing water, the clay water pipes of the Minoans were also used to gather water and store it. Thus, these conduits had to be able to: Subterranean Water Transportation: It is not quite known why the Minoans needed to move water without it being noticed. Quality Water Transportation: Bearing in mind the evidence, several scholars advocate that these water lines were not hooked up to the prevalent water distribution process, supplying the residence with water from a various source.

Public Water Fountains in and Around Berkley, Ca

In February 2014, a charge on sugar-sweetened beverages was passed in Berkley, CA, making it the first city in the United States to submit such a regulation. The tax is intended to lessen sugary drink intake and improve the consumption of healthier drinks, including water from fountains. Efforts were made to find out the state of local drinking water fountains in both high- and low-income neighborhoods. The research utilized a GPS app to collect data on current water fountains in the city. The US Census Community Study database was utilized to collect information related to race and economic status in these segments. The two data sets were reviewed to determine what class distinctions, if any, there were in access to functioning water fountains. The analysis was able to establish the demographics of areas with water fountains, also noting whether the condition of the fountains was greater or worse in lower class neighborhoods. Many of the water fountains were not clean or plugged, in spite of the fact that most fountains worked.

Greece: Cultural Statuary

Most sculptors were remunerated by the temples to enhance the intricate columns and archways with renderings of the gods until the period came to a close and countless Greeks began to think of their religion as superstitious rather than sacred, when it became more common for sculptors to represent ordinary people as well. Sometimes, a depiction of wealthy families' forefathers would be commissioned to be placed within huge familial tombs, and portraiture, which would be duplicated by the Romans upon their conquering of Greek civilization, also became customary. The usage of sculpture and other art forms differed over the years of The Greek Classical period, a duration of artistic growth when the arts had more than one goal. Greek sculpture is perhaps appealing to us all today because it was an avant-garde experiment in the ancient world, so it doesn't make a difference whether its original function was religious zeal or artistic pleasure.


California's Garden Water Fountains Study and Results
The first example of a soda tax in the US came in February 2014, when it was approved by the city of Berkley, California. By taxing sugary drinks, the city hopes to inspire more people to decide on healthier options, such as water. The aim... read more
Pick from all Sorts of Outdoor Water Features
Powered by sunlight, solar fountains are growing to be rapidly trendy. The reasons for this are diverse, from the lack of wires and the reduced complexities to the decreased power bills and the beneficial impact on our... read more