The Dispersion of Fountain Design Technology

Throughout Europe, the chief means of dissiminating useful hydraulic facts and fountain design suggestions were the published papers and illustrated books of the time, which added to the development of scientific technology. An internationally celebrated pioneer in hydraulics in the late 1500's was a French fountain designer, whose name has been lost to history. His expertise in designing landscapes and grottoes with incorporated and ingenious water attributes began in Italy and with mandates in Brussels, London and Germany. The publication, “The Principles of Moving Forces,” authored near the end of his lifetime in France, turned into the fundamental text on hydraulic mechanics and engineering. Replacing principal hydraulic discoveries of classical antiquity, the book also highlights contemporary hydraulic technologies. aq_78209__16708.jpg The water screw, a technical method to move water, and invented by Archimedes, was featured in the book. An beautiful fountain with the sun heating up the water in two vessels concealed in an nearby accommodation was presented in one illustration. What occurs is the heated water expanded, rises and closes up the piping heading to the water feature, consequently leading to activation. Yard ponds as well as pumps, water wheels, and water feature styles are incorporated in the book.

Ancient Crete & The Minoans: Water Fountains

During archaeological digs on the island of Crete, a variety of types of conduits have been discovered. These were made use of to supply urban centers with water as well as to alleviate flooding and eliminate waste. Stone and clay were the ingredients of choice for these conduits. When prepared from clay, they were generally in the shape of canals and circular or rectangular conduits. Amidst these were clay piping which were U shaped or a shorter, cone-like form which have just appeared in Minoan society. Knossos Palace had an advanced plumbing system made of terracotta piping which ran up to three meters under ground. Along with circulating water, the clay water pipes of the Minoans were also utilized to collect water and accumulate it. These terracotta piping were needed to perform: Subterranean Water Transportation: It is not quite known why the Minoans wanted to transport water without it being enjoyed. Quality Water Transportation: There is also evidence which suggests the pipes being employed to provide for water fountains separately of the local technique.

The Main Characteristics of Ancient Greek Sculpture

Archaic Greeks were known for developing the first freestanding statuary; up till then, most carvings were made out of walls and pillars as reliefs. Kouros figures, sculptures of adolescent, handsome male or female (kore) Greeks, made up the bulk of the sculptures.

Symbolizing beauty to the Greeks, the kouroi were crafted to look stiff and typically had foot in front; the males were healthy, robust, and naked. Life-sized versions of the kouroi appeared beginning in 650 BC. The Archaic period was turbulent for the Greeks as they evolved into more refined forms of government and art, and obtained more information and facts about the peoples and civilizations outside of Greece. Notwithstanding, these battles did little to hamper the advancement of the Greek civilization.

The Positive Benefits of Adding a Water Feature in Your Living Area

The area outside your residence can be enhanced by adding a wall or a garden fountain to your landscaping or garden project. Many contemporary designers and craftsmen have been inspired by historical fountains and water features. As such, introducing one of these to your interior is a great way to connect it to the past. Among the many attributes of these beautiful garden water features is the water and moisture they release into the air which attracts birds and other wild life as well as helps to balance the ecosystem. Flying, annoying insects, for instance, are scared away by the birds congregating near the fountain or birdbath.

The space required for a cascading or spouting fountain is considerable, so a wall fountain is the perfect size for a small yard. There are two types of fountains to choose from including the freestanding version with a flat back and an attached basin set up against a fence or a wall in your yard, or the wall-mounted, self-contained version which is hung directly on a wall. A water feature can be added to an existing wall if you include some kind of fountain mask as well as a basin to collect the water at the bottom. The plumbing and masonry work necessary for this type of work requires know-how, so it is best to employ a skilled person rather than do it yourself.

Modern Water Fountains And Public Policy

Berkley, CA residents voted for a sugar-sweetened beverages tax in February 2014, the earliest of its kind in the United States. The objective is to get men and women drinking more water and other natural beverages by elevating the cost of soda and other sugar-sweetened drinks. Research was completed to assure that residents of all races and economic classes had access to thoroughly clean, working drinking fountains. By creating a mobile GPS application, researchers were able to amass data on Berkley’s drinking water fountains. Demographic data on race and earnings was then gathered using the US Census database. By cross-referencing the water fountain locations with the demographic data, they were able to identify whether access to working fountains was class dependent. Each water fountain and the demographics of its bordering area were reviewed to reveal whether the location of the fountains or their level of maintenance exhibited any link to income, race, or other points. The tidiness of many fountains was found poor, even if most were operating.


"Old School" Fountain Manufacturers
Multi-talented people, fountain artists from the 16th to the late 18th century often served as architects, sculptors, artists, engineers and highly educated scholars all in one. Leonardo da Vinci as a innovative genius, inventor and... read more
Gian Lorenzo Bernini's Public Fountains
There are countless celebrated Roman water features in its city center. Practically all of them were designed, designed and built by one of the greatest sculptors and artists of the 17th century, Gian Lorenzo Bernini. He was... read more
The Role of Hydrostatics In The Design Of Fountains
Liquid in a state of equilibrium applies force on the objects it meets, including its container. There are two forms, hydrostatic load or external forces. When applied against a level surface, the liquid exerts... read more
Rome’s Ingenious Water Delivery Systems
Aqua Anio Vetus, the first raised aqueduct assembled in Rome, commenced providing the people living in the hills with water in 273 BC, although they had relied on natural springs up till then. Outside of these... read more
Agrippa's Eye-popping, but Mostly Forgotten Water-Lifting Technology
In 1588, Agrippa’s water-lifting discovery lured the interest and admiration of Andrea Bacci but that turned out to be one of the last references of the mechanism. It could... read more