California's Water Fountain Study and Results

Berkley, CA citizens voted for a sugar-sweetened beverages tax in February 2014, the earliest of its kind in the United States. By making soda more costly, it’s assumed that individuals will make better choices for what their children drink, like water as an example. Research was conducted to ensure that people of all races and economic classes had access to clean, operating drinking fountains. The research utilized a GPS app to compile data on current water fountains in the city. s-203__47025.jpg The US Census Community Study database was employed to amass information related to race and economic status in these areas. The research workers sought to use both data sets to figure out if demographics were interconnected to drinking water fountain access. They were in a position to determine the demographics of segments surrounding established fountains, as well as the cleanliness and upkeep of fountains across different areas. The fact that the fountains were functioning was not a guarantee that they were well-maintained, considering quite a few were in need of cleaning and repair.

The Early, Unappreciated Water-Moving System

In 1588, Agrippa’s water-lifting innovation captivated the attention and admiration of Andrea Bacci but that turned out to be one of the very last references of the technology. It could perhaps be that in 1592 when Rome’s most recent channel, the Acqua Felice, began delivering the Villa Medici, there was simply no longer a great deal use for the system. Its usage may have been short but Camillo Agrippa’s invention maintained a large place in history as the most spectacular water-lifting hardware of its kind in Italy prior to the modern era. Renaissance landscapes of the late sixteenth century happened to be home to works like melodious fountains, scenographic water demonstrations and water caprices (giochi d’acqua), but these were not brimming with water in ways which defied the force of gravity itself.

The City Of Rome, Gian Bernini, And Water Features

In Rome’s city center, there are countless famous water features. Almost all of them were designed, conceived and constructed by one of the greatest sculptors and artists of the 17th century, Gian Lorenzo Bernini. Marks of his life's efforts are evident all through the streets of Rome simply because, in addition to his skills as a water feature creator, he was also a city builder.

Ultimately travelling to Rome to fully reveal their artwork, chiefly in the form of public water fountains, Bernini’s father, a renowned Florentine sculptor, guided his young son. The young Bernini was an exemplary employee and received encouragement and patronage of important painters as well as popes. At the start he was recognized for his sculptural abilities. Most famously in the Vatican, he utilized a base of knowledge in classic Greek architecture and melded it flawlessly with Roman marble. Although many artists had an impact on his work, Michelangelo had the most profound effect.

The Main Characteristics of Ancient Greek Statuary

The Archaic Greeks manufactured the very first freestanding statuary, an amazing achievement as most sculptures up until then had been reliefs cut into walls and pillars. Youthful, ideal male or female (kore) Greeks were the subject matter of most of the statues, or kouros figures. The kouroi, considered by the Greeks to portray beauty, had one foot stretched out of a rigid forward-facing posture and the male statues were always nude, with a strong, strong build. The kouroi grew to be life-sized beginning in 650 BC. Throughout the Archaic period, a great time of changes, the Greeks were evolving new forms of government, expressions of art, and a greater comprehension of people and cultures outside Greece. Similar to other periods of historical unrest, arguments were commonplace, and there were struggles between city-states like The Arcadian wars, the Spartan invasion of Samos.

The Dispersion of Outdoor Fountain Design Innovation

Instrumental to the advancement of scientific technology were the printed letters and illustrated publications of the time. They were also the principal method of transmitting practical hydraulic information and fountain design suggestions throughout Europe. An unnamed French fountain engineer came to be an internationally celebrated hydraulic pioneer in the later part of the 1500's. With imperial mandates in Brussels, London and Germany, he began his work in Italy, building know-how in garden design and grottoes with integrated and clever water features. In France, near the closure of his life, he penned “The Principle of Moving Forces”, a publication that became the fundamental text on hydraulic technology and engineering. Classical antiquity hydraulic breakthroughs were detailed as well as updates to essential classical antiquity hydraulic discoveries in the book. The water screw, a technical method to move water, and invented by Archimedes, was showcased in the book. An beautiful fountain with sunlight heating up the liquid in two containers hidden in an adjacent accommodation was presented in one illustration.

The end result: the water feature is activated by the heated liquid expanding and ascending up the piping. The publication also includes garden ponds, water wheels, water feature designs.


The Father Of Rome's Water Fountain Design And Style
There are many famous water fountains in Rome’s city center. One of the best ever sculptors and designers of the 17th century, Gian Lorenzo Bernini designed, created and built nearly all of... read more
Rome, Gian Lorenzo Bernini, And Public Fountains
There are numerous celebrated water features in Rome’s city center. Gian Lorenzo Bernini, one of the greatest sculptors and artists of the 17th century developed, conceptualized and built virtually all of them. Also... read more
The Hellenic Republic: Architectural Statues
Although the majority of sculptors were remunerated by the temples to decorate the elaborate columns and archways with renderings of the gods, as the time period came to a close, it became more common for sculptors to depict ordinary people as well... read more