California's Garden Water Fountain Study and Results

In February 2014, a tax on sugar-sweetened beverages was approved in Berkley, CA, making it the first city in the United States to submit such a law. su4030_2__37399.jpg By making soda more costly, it’s assumed that parents will make better choices for what their children drink, like water as an example. First, the city conducted research to assess whether citizens had proper access to functioning drinking water fountains. Using data amassed by a mobile GPS app, researchers were able to establish the state of active water fountains in Berkley. Demographic data on race and earnings was then gathered using the US Census database. Evaluations were made amongst the location and demographic data, disclosing whether class differences affected access to clean, working water fountains. Each water fountain and the demographics of its bordering area were analyzed to reveal whether the location of the fountains or their level of maintenance exhibited any relationship to income, race, or other points. While the bulk of the fountains were in working order, an alarming number were discovered to be in a poor state of repairs.

Aqueducts: The Answer to Rome's Water Troubles

Aqua Anio Vetus, the first raised aqueduct founded in Rome, commenced supplying the people living in the hills with water in 273 BC, even though they had counted on natural springs up till then.

Over this time period, there were only two other techniques capable of supplying water to elevated areas, subterranean wells and cisterns, which accumulated rainwater. In the very early 16th century, the city began to make use of the water that flowed below ground through Acqua Vergine to supply water to Pincian Hill. The aqueduct’s channel was made attainable by pozzi, or manholes, that were positioned along its length when it was 1st built. Though they were originally developed to make it possible to support the aqueduct, Cardinal Marcello Crescenzi started using the manholes to get water from the channel, commencing when he obtained the property in 1543. He didn’t get enough water from the cistern that he had built on his property to obtain rainwater. To provide himself with a much more streamlined means to obtain water, he had one of the manholes exposed, providing him access to the aqueduct below his property.

Agrippa’s Marvelous Water-lifting Appliance

The compliments Agrippa’s water-lifting invention was given from Andrea Bacci in 1588 was short-lived. It could be that the Acqua Felice, the second of Rome’s early modern channels made the device obsolete when it was linked to the Villa Medici in 1592. Even though its success was short lived, Camillo Agrippa’s design for lifting water was the marvel of its day, surpassing anything crafted in Italy since the days of classic Rome. It might violate gravity to lift water to Renaissance landscapes, nourishing them in a way other late 16th century models like scenographic water presentations, musical water fountains and giochi d’acqua or water caprices, were not.

Did You Know How Mechanical Concepts of Water Fountains Became Known?

Instrumental to the development of scientific technology were the printed letters and illustrated books of the day. They were also the main method of transmitting useful hydraulic facts and water fountain design suggestions all through Europe. An unnamed French fountain designer became an internationally celebrated hydraulic pioneer in the late 1500's.

By creating landscapes and grottoes with incorporated and clever water features, he began his occupation in Italy by receiving Royal commissions in Brussels, London and Germany. In France, near the end of his lifetime, he published “The Principle of Moving Forces”, a book which turned into the primary text on hydraulic technology and engineering. Detailing contemporary hydraulic technologies, the book also modernized critical hydraulic developments of classical antiquity. Archimedes, the developer of the water screw, had his work showcased and these integrated a mechanized way to move water. Sunlight heated up the liquid in two concealed containers next to the decorative fountain were displayed in an illustration. The hot water expands and subsequently ascends and closes the pipes thereby activating the fountain. The publication furthermore mentions garden ponds, water wheels, water feature concepts.

Public Fountains Recorded by History

Towns and communities depended on practical water fountains to conduct water for preparing food, bathing, and cleaning from nearby sources like lakes, streams, or creeks. The force of gravity was the power source of water fountains up until the end of the nineteenth century, using the potent power of water traveling down hill from a spring or creek to squeeze the water through valves or other outlets. Striking and impressive, large water fountains have been designed as memorials in nearly all societies. The contemporary fountains of today bear little similarity to the very first water fountains. Uncomplicated stone basins created from nearby rock were the very first fountains, used for spiritual purposes and drinking water. The original stone basins are believed to be from about 2000 BC. The first civilizations that made use of fountains relied on gravity to drive water through spigots. These historic fountains were created to be functional, commonly situated along aqueducts, streams and waterways to supply drinking water. Fountains with ornate decoration began to show up in Rome in about 6 BC, usually gods and animals, made with stone or copper-base alloy. Water for the communal fountains of Rome arrived to the city via a complex system of water aqueducts.

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