California's Garden Water Fountain Analysis and Results

The first implementation of a soda tax in the US came in February 2014, when it was approved by the city of Berkley, California. By making soda more costly, it’s assumed that people will make better choices for what their children drink, like water as an example. Research was done to ensure that people of all races and economic classes had access to thoroughly clean, operating drinking fountains. Via content amassed by a mobile GPS app, professionals were able to establish the condition of existing water fountains in Berkley. Demographic data on race and earnings was then assembled using the US Census database. 02262_bgnd1__96348.jpg Comparisons were made between the location and demographic data, exposing whether class differences affected access to clean, working water fountains. They were able to determine the demographics of regions surrounding active fountains, as well as the cleanliness and upkeep of fountains across different areas. The cleanliness of many fountains was found poor, even if most were functioning.

Builders of the First Water Features

Water feature designers were multi-talented individuals from the 16th to the later part of the 18th century, often serving as architects, sculptors, artisans, engineers and highly educated scholars all in one person. Leonardo da Vinci as a innovative master, inventor and scientific virtuoso exemplified this Renaissance artist. The forces of nature guided him to explore the properties and movement of water, and due to his curiosity, he systematically recorded his findings in his now renowned notebooks. Early Italian water feature engineers transformed private villa configurations into inspiring water showcases complete with emblematic meaning and natural charm by combining imagination with hydraulic and gardening expertise. The humanist Pirro Ligorio offered the vision behind the splendors in Tivoli and was recognized for his abilities in archeology, architecture and garden concepts. Masterminding the extraordinary water marbles, water features and water pranks for the numerous properties in the vicinity of Florence, other water feature designers were well versed in humanistic topics and time-honored scientific texts.

The Early Society: Outdoor Fountains

Archaeological digs in Minoan Crete in Greece have exposed a number of kinds of conduits. Along with delivering water, they spread out water that accumulated from storms or waste. The chief materials used were stone or clay. Terracotta was utilized for canals and pipelines, both rectangular and round. Among these were terracotta piping that were U-shaped or a shortened, cone-like form which have just showed up in Minoan civilization. The water supply at Knossos Palace was handled with a strategy of terracotta pipes which was placed beneath the floor, at depths going from a couple of centimeters to a number of meters. The water pipes also had other functions such as amassing water and conveying it to a primary location for storage. This required the clay conduits to be suitable for holding water without seepage. Underground Water Transportation: the hidden system for water circulation could have been employed to supply water to specific people or activities. Quality Water Transportation: Considering the evidence, a number of historians propose that these pipes were not hooked up to the prevalent water allocation process, supplying the castle with water from a various source.

Fountains Found in Historical Documents

Water fountains were initially practical in purpose, used to convey water from rivers or springs to towns and hamlets, providing the residents with clean water to drink, wash, and cook with. To produce water flow through a fountain until the late 1800’s, and create a jet of water, mandated gravity and a water source such as a creek or lake, located higher than the fountain. The elegance and spectacle of fountains make them ideal for historic monuments. When you see a fountain nowadays, that is definitely not what the first water fountains looked like. The 1st known water fountain was a natural stone basin created that was used as a receptacle for drinking water and ceremonial purposes. 2000 B.C. is when the earliest known stone fountain basins were used. The spraying of water appearing from small jets was pushed by gravity, the sole power source designers had in those days.

The location of the fountains was determined by the water source, which is why you’ll usually find them along reservoirs, canals, or streams. Fountains with flowery decoration began to show up in Rome in approximately 6 B.C., commonly gods and wildlife, made with stone or bronze. A well-designed collection of reservoirs and aqueducts kept Rome's public fountains supplied with fresh water.

Architectural Sculpture in Early Greece

Even though many sculptors were compensated by the temples to decorate the detailed columns and archways with renderings of the gods of old, as the time period came to a close, it became more prevalent for sculptors to represent common people as well mainly because plenty of Greeks had started to think of their religion as superstitious rather than sacred. Rich individuals would occasionally commission a rendering of their ancestors for their large familial burial tombs; portraiture also became frequent and would be appropriated by the Romans upon their acquisition of Greek society. A time of artistic development, the use of sculpture and alternate art forms transformed during the Greek Classical period, so it is inexact to suggest that the arts provided only one function. Greek sculpture was a modern component of antiquity, whether the explanation was religious fervor or aesthetic fulfillment, and its contemporary quality might be what endears it to us today.


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