Free Water Fountains in and Around Berkley, Ca

Berkley, CA people voted for a sugar-sweetened beverages tax in February 2014, the earliest of its kind in the United States. By making soda more expensive, it’s assumed that people will make healthier choices for what their children drink, like water for instance. Attempts were made to find out the condition of community drinking water fountains in both high- and low-income neighborhoods. s-420__58741.jpg Information on the city’s drinking water fountains were assembled using a GPS created exclusively for the research. The US Census Community Study database was used to accumulate information relating to race and economic status in these areas. The two data sets were reviewed to figure out what class disparities, if any, there were in access to running water fountains. The research was able to pinpoint the demographics of areas with water fountains, also noting whether the shape of the fountains was better or inferior in lower class neighborhoods. While the bulk of the fountains were in working order, an alarming number were uncovered to be in a bad state of repairs.

The Main Characteristics of Classic Greek Statuary

The primitive Greeks built the very first freestanding statuary, an awesome achievement as most sculptures up until then had been reliefs cut into walls and pillars. For the most part the statues, or kouros figures, were of young and attractive male or female (kore) Greeks. Thought of by Greeks to embody skin care, the kouroi were shaped into stiff, forward facing positions with one foot outstretched, and the male statues were usually nude, muscular, and fit. Life-sized versions of the kouroi appeared beginning in 650 BC. A massive era of transformation for the Greeks, the Archaic period introduced about more forms of state, expressions of artwork, and a greater comprehension of people and customs outside of Greece. Comparable to many other periods of historical unrest, arguments were common, and there were battles between city-states like The Arcadian wars, the Spartan invasion of Samos.

Hydro-Statics & Public Fountains: The Fundamentals

All liquids in a state of equilibrium exert pressure on the materials it comes in contact with. These fall into two groups, hydrostatic load or outside force. When pressing against a level wall, the fluid applies equal force at assorted points on the wall. Liquid in equilibrium will apply vertical pressure at every point of an object’s exterior when that subject is fully submerged in the liquid. We refer to this concept as Archimedes’ principle, which deals with the forces of buoyancy. Liquid acted on by hydrostatic force is then subject to hydrostatic pressure at the point of contact. The containers that make up a city’s fountains, wells, and its water supply system are applications of these concepts.

The First Outdoor Water Fountains

Water fountains were originally practical in purpose, used to bring water from rivers or springs to cities and villages, providing the residents with clean water to drink, wash, and cook with. In the days before electric power, the spray of fountains was powered by gravity alone, commonly using an aqueduct or water source located far away in the nearby mountains. The beauty and wonder of fountains make them appropriate for historical monuments. Crude in style, the first water fountains did not look much like present fountains. The first known water fountain was a natural stone basin created that was used as a container for drinking water and ceremonial purposes. Rock basins as fountains have been uncovered from 2000 B.C.. Gravity was the power source that operated the earliest water fountains. These original fountains were designed to be functional, usually situated along reservoirs, streams and rivers to furnish drinking water. Wildlife, Gods, and spectral figures dominated the early decorative Roman fountains, starting to show up in about 6 BC.

The Romans had an elaborate system of aqueducts that delivered the water for the numerous fountains that were placed throughout the community.

Rome’s Ingenious Water Transport Systems

With the building of the first elevated aqueduct in Rome, the Aqua Anio Vetus in 273 BC, people who lived on the city’s hills no longer had to rely strictly on naturally-occurring spring water for their needs. If citizens residing at higher elevations did not have access to springs or the aqueduct, they’d have to be dependent on the remaining existing techniques of the time, cisterns that accumulated rainwater from the sky and subterranean wells that received the water from below ground. In the early sixteenth century, the city began to use the water that ran below ground through Acqua Vergine to provide drinking water to Pincian Hill. Pozzi, or manholes, were made at standard intervals along the aqueduct’s channel. During the some nine years he had the residential property, from 1543 to 1552, Cardinal Marcello Crescenzi utilized these manholes to take water from the network in containers, though they were originally built for the objective of cleaning and maintaining the aqueduct. Apparently, the rainwater cistern on his property wasn’t adequate to satisfy his needs. Via an opening to the aqueduct that ran underneath his property, he was in a position to reach his water wants.


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