Statues As a Staple of Vintage Art in Historic Greece

Archaic Greeks were known for developing the first freestanding statuary; up until then, most carvings were made out of walls and pillars as reliefs. Most of these freestanding sculptures were what is known as kouros figures, statues of young, attractive male or female (kore) Greeks. Symbolizing beauty to the Greeks, the kouroi were designed to appear rigid and typically had foot forward; the males were healthy, powerful, and naked. The kouroi became life-sized starting in 650 BC. brk-303-1__85451.jpg The Archaic period was an incredible point of change for the Greeks as they extended into new forms of government, formed unique expressions of art, and achieved knowledge of the people and cultures outside of Greece. During this time and other durations of historic tumult, encounters often happened, most notably battles fought amongst city-states such as the Arcadian wars and the Spartan infiltration of Samos.

The Role of Hydrostatics In The Design Of Fountains

All liquids in a state of equilibrium exert force on the materials it comes in contact with. There are two forms, hydrostatic load or external forces. When pushing against a level wall, the fluid applies equal force at various points on the wall. Liquid in equilibrium will employ vertical pressure at every point of an object’s exterior when that object is fully submerged in the liquid. We refer to this concept as Archimedes’ principle, which deals with the forces of buoyancy. When hydrostatic force is applied on an area of liquid, this becomes hydrostatic pressure. Examples of these containers can be found in the manner in which a city circulates water, along with its fountains and artesian wells.

Water-lifting Tool by Camillo Agrippa

In 1588, Agrippa’s water-lifting discovery lured the notice and admiration of Andrea Bacci but that turned out to be one of the very last mentions of the gadget.

It could be that in 1592 when Rome’s most recent waterway, the Acqua Felice, began providing the Villa Medici, there was simply no longer a great deal use for the equipment. This is all the more heartbreaking bearing in mind how spectacular Camillo Agrippa’s system was, entirely distinctive in Italy during the centuries that passed between the decline of ancient Rome and the modern period. Even though there were other important water-driven creations either planned or built during the later part of the sixteenth century, like scenographic water exhibits, giochi d’acqua or water caprices, and melodious water features, none were nourished by water like Agrippa’s device.

The Dissemination of Fountain Design Technology

Instrumental to the advancement of scientific technology were the published letters and illustrated publications of the time. They were also the primary method of transferring useful hydraulic ideas and fountain design ideas all through Europe. In the later part of the 1500's, a French water feature designer (whose name has been lost) was the globally recognized hydraulics pioneer. His expertise in creating gardens and grottoes with incorporated and imaginative water features began in Italy and with commissions in Brussels, London and Germany. The book, “The Principles of Moving Forces,” authored near the end of his life in France, turned into the fundamental text on hydraulic mechanics and engineering. Detailing modern hydraulic systems, the book also modernized key hydraulic developments of classical antiquity. Dominant among these works were those of Archimedes, the inventor of the water screw, a mechanical way of transferring water. A pair of hidden vessels heated up by the sun's rays in a space adjacent to the ornamental water feature were shown in an illustration. What occurs is the heated liquid expanded, rises and closes up the pipes leading to the water feature, consequently leading to activation.

Pumps, water wheels, water features and garden pond concepts are included in the publication.

Builders of the First Water Features

Multi-talented individuals, fountain artists from the 16th to the late 18th century often worked as architects, sculptors, artists, engineers and cultivated scholars all in one person. Leonardo da Vinci, a Renaissance artist, was renowned as a inspired master, inventor and scientific expert. He methodically registered his observations in his now celebrated notebooks about his investigations into the forces of nature and the qualities and movement of water. Early Italian water fountain builders transformed private villa settings into ingenious water exhibits complete of symbolic meaning and natural elegance by coupling imagination with hydraulic and horticultural experience. The humanist Pirro Ligorio supplied the vision behind the splendors in Tivoli and was celebrated for his skill in archeology, architecture and garden design. Other water fountain engineers, masterminding the incredible water marbles, water functions and water jokes for the various estates in the vicinity of Florence, were tried and tested in humanist subject areas and classical scientific texts.


The Circulation of Water Fountain Engineering Knowledge in Europe
Throughout the European countries, the primary means of dissiminating useful hydraulic understanding and fountain design ideas were the circulated papers and illustrated publications of the time, which added to the development of scientific development. An... read more
"Old School" Garden Fountain Manufacturers
Frequently working as architects, sculptors, designers, engineers and cultivated scholars, all in one, fountain designers were multi-talented people from... read more
Historic Crete & The Minoans: Water Features
On the Greek island of Crete, excavations have unearthed channels of several types. They were used for water supply as well as removal of storm water and wastewater. They... read more