Agrippa's Amazing, but Mostly Forgotten Water-Lifting Technology

In 1588, Agrippa’s water-lifting discovery lured the interest and compliments of Andrea Bacci but that turned out to be one of the very last mentions of the mechanism. It may possibly be that the Acqua Felice, the second of Rome’s initial modern aqueducts made the system outdated when it was attached to the Villa Medici in 1592. In reality it was probably merely abandoned when Ferdinando went to Florence in 1588 after the demise of his brother, Francesco di Medici, leading Ferdinando to give up his cardinalship to lock in his position as the next Grand Duke of Tuscany. Renaissance landscapes of the later part of the sixteenth century happened to be home to works such as musical fountains, scenographic water demonstrations and water caprices (giochi d’acqua), but these weren’t outfitted with water in ways which defied the force of gravity itself. ft-215__75180.jpg

The Original Water Fountain Designers

Fountain designers were multi-talented people from the 16th to the late 18th century, often serving as architects, sculptors, artists, engineers and highly educated scholars all in one person. Exemplifying the Renaissance skilled artist as a creative master, Leonardo da Vinci worked as an innovator and scientific specialist. With his immense fascination concerning the forces of nature, he examined the properties and motion of water and also systematically documented his findings in his now celebrated notebooks. Coupling inventiveness with hydraulic and gardening abilities, early Italian water fountain creators changed private villa settings into ingenious water exhibits loaded with symbolic meaning and natural elegance. The splendors in Tivoli were created by the humanist Pirro Ligorio, who was famed for his capabilities in archeology, engineering and garden design. Masterminding the extraordinary water marbles, water features and water jokes for the numerous properties in the vicinity of Florence, some other water fountain designers were well versed in humanist subjects and ancient technical texts.

The Dispersion of Fountain Design Knowledge

Contributing to the development of scientific technology were the printed papers and illustrated publications of the day. They were also the main means of transmitting practical hydraulic facts and fountain design suggestions all through Europe. An internationally celebrated innovator in hydraulics in the later part of the 1500's was a French water fountain designer, whose name has been lost to history. With Royal commissions in Brussels, London and Germany, he began his work in Italy, building knowledge in garden design and grottoes with built-in and ingenious water hydraulics. He authored a publication titled “The Principles of Moving Forces” towards the conclusion of his lifetime while in France which became the basic text on hydraulic mechanics and engineering. Modernizing principal hydraulic advancements of classical antiquity, the publication also explains contemporary hydraulic technologies. As a mechanical way to shift water, Archimedes invented the water screw, key among important hydraulic breakthroughs. Sunlight warming liquid in a pair of containers unseen in a room next to an ornamental fountain was presented in one illustration. What occurs is the hot liquid expanded, goes up and locks up the conduits heading to the fountain, thereby leading to activation. Pumps, water wheels, water attributes and garden pond designs are mentioned in the publication.

Gian Bernini's Water Fountains

There are numerous celebrated water fountains in the city center of Rome. One of the greatest sculptors and artists of the 17th century, Gian Lorenzo Bernini fashioned, conceptualized and constructed nearly all of them. He was additionally a urban architect, in addition to his abilities as a water fountain engineer, and traces of his life's work are noticeable throughout the avenues of Rome. A celebrated Florentine sculptor, Bernini's father mentored his young son, and they eventually went to Rome to thoroughly express their artwork, primarily in the form of public water fountains and water fountains. An diligent employee, the young Bernini earned compliments and the backing of various popes and important designers. At the start he was recognized for his sculptural expertise. Most notably in the Vatican, he used a base of expertise in ancient Greek architecture and melded it effortlessly with Roman marble. He was influenced by many great artists, however, Michelangelo had the biggest effect on his work.

Aspects of Garden Statues in Archaic Greece

The first freestanding sculpture was designed by the Archaic Greeks, a recognized success since until then the sole carvings in existence were reliefs cut into walls and pillars. Most of the freestanding statues were of youthful, winsome male or female (kore) Greeks and are known as kouros figures. The kouroi, regarded by the Greeks to symbolize beauty, had one foot extended out of a fixed forward-facing posture and the male statues were regularly undressed, with a strong, sturdy shape. In 650 BC, life-size variations of the kouroi began to be seen. The Archaic period was an incredible time of change for the Greeks as they expanded into new modes of government, produced unique expressions of art, and achieved insights of the people and cultures outside of Greece. Similar to many other moments of historical conflict, disagreements were common, and there were battles between city-states like The Arcadian wars, the Spartan invasion of Samos.


The Dispersion of Fountain Design Technology
Throughout Europe, the chief means of dissiminating useful hydraulic facts and fountain design suggestions were the published papers and illustrated books of the time, which added to the development of scientific technology. An internationally ... read more
Ancient Outside Water Fountain Designers
Water fountain designers were multi-talented people from the 16th to the late 18th century, often serving as architects, sculptors, artists, engineers and highly educated scholars all in... read more
Hydro-Statics & Features: An Overview
All liquids in a state of equilibrium exert force on the materials it comes in contact with. These fall into two groupings, hydrostatic load or outside force. The pressure applied by the... read more
Public Fountains Hydro-Statics 101
When in equilibrium, liquid delivers energy to its container or any other material it comes in contact with. These fall into 2 types, hydrostatic load or outside force. The liquid applies the very same amount of force to the... read more
Aqueducts: The Answer to Rome's Water Troubles
Prior to 273, when the very first elevated aqueduct, Aqua Anio Vetus, was made in Roma, inhabitants who dwelled on hills had to go further down to get their water from natural sources. If inhabitants residing at higher elevations did not have access... read more