The Defining Characteristics of Classic Greek Statuary

The first freestanding statuary was improved by the Archaic Greeks, a distinguished success since until then the only carvings in existence were reliefs cut into walls and columns. Kouros figures, sculptures of adolescent, good-looking male or female (kore) Greeks, made up the bulk of the statues. ft-17__09070.jpg Representing beauty to the Greeks, the kouroi were crafted to appear rigid and commonly had foot in front; the males were vigorous, robust, and nude. In about 650 BC, the varieties of the kouroi became life-sized. The Archaic period was an extraordinary point of change for the Greeks as they extended into new forms of government, produced novel expressions of art, and achieved information of the people and cultures outside of Greece. Throughout this time and other times of historical tumult, clashes often occurred, among them wars fought between city-states such as the Arcadian wars and the Spartan invasion of Samos.

Outside Garden Fountains Hydro-statics for Dummies

From its housing vessel to other materials it comes in contact with, liquid in equilibrium applies force on every single thing it touches. These fall into two categories, hydrostatic load or outside force. When used against a level surface, the liquid exercises equal force against all points of that surface. All points on an object’s exterior are affected by vertical pressure when the object is totally submerged in a liquid that’s in a state of equilibrium. This applied force is known as buoyancy, while the principle itself is known as Archimedes’ principle. Hydrostatic pressure is made by hydrostatic force, when the force exerts itself on a point of liquid. These principles are applied to the containers used by plumbing, wells, and fountains.

Builders of the First Outside Garden Fountains

Fountain designers were multi-talented people from the 16th to the later part of the 18th century, often serving as architects, sculptors, artists, engineers and highly educated scholars all in one person. Leonardo da Vinci, a Renaissance artist, was renowned as a imaginative genius, inventor and scientific virtuoso. The forces of nature led him to investigate the qualities and motion of water, and due to his curiosity, he systematically recorded his ideas in his now celebrated notebooks. Modifying private villa configurations into amazing water showcases full of symbolic interpretation and natural wonder, early Italian water feature designers paired resourcefulness with hydraulic and horticultural knowledge. The humanist Pirro Ligorio, renowned for his virtuosity in archeology, architecture and garden design, delivered the vision behind the wonders in Tivoli. Other fountain engineers, masterminding the fantastic water marbles, water features and water antics for the various domains in the vicinity of Florence, were well-versed in humanistic subjects and classical scientific readings.

Rome’s Ingenious Water Transport Solutions

Aqua Anio Vetus, the first raised aqueduct assembled in Rome, commenced providing the many people living in the hills with water in 273 BC, although they had depended on natural springs up until then. During this time period, there were only two other systems capable of providing water to high areas, subterranean wells and cisterns, which gathered rainwater. Beginning in the sixteenth century, a unique system was introduced, using Acqua Vergine’s subterranean segments to deliver water to Pincian Hill. Throughout the length of the aqueduct’s network were pozzi, or manholes, that gave access. While these manholes were provided to make it easier to conserve the aqueduct, it was also feasible to use containers to extract water from the channel, which was exercised by Cardinal Marcello Crescenzi from the time he acquired the property in 1543 to his passing in 1552. Though the cardinal also had a cistern to get rainwater, it couldn't produce enough water. Fortunately, the aqueduct sat directly below his residence, and he had a shaft established to give him access.

The Positive Benefits of Adding a Water Feature in Your Living Space

The inclusion of a wall water feature or an outdoor garden fountain is a great way to embellish your yard or garden design.

Historical fountains and water features have stirred the interest of contemporary designers as well as fountain designers. Therefore, in order to connect your home to previous times, add one these in your home decor. The water and moisture garden fountains release into the atmosphere draws birds and other creatures, and also balances the ecosystem, all of which add to the benefits of having one of these beautiful water features. Birds enticed by a fountain or bird bath often frighten off irritating flying invaders, for instance.

Wall fountains are a good alternative if your yard is small because they do not require much space in comparison to a spouting or cascading fountain. Either a freestanding fountain with an even back and an attached basin set against a fence or a wall, or a wall-mounted style which is self-contained and hangs on a wall, are some of the options from which you can choose. A fountain can be added to an existing wall if you include some type of fountain mask as well as a basin to gather the water below. It is best not to attempt this job yourself as professional plumbers and masons are more suitable to do this type of work.


Outdoor Fountain Engineers Through History
Water fountain designers were multi-talented individuals from the 16th to the late 18th century, often working as architects, sculptors, artists, engineers and cultivated scholars all in one person. ... read more
Garden Water Fountains And Public Policy
In February 2014, a taxation on sugar-sweetened beverages was approved in Berkley, CA, making it the first city in the United States to create such a law. The taxation is intended to lessen sugary... read more
Aqueducts: The Answer to Rome's Water Challenges
Previous to 273, when the 1st elevated aqueduct, Aqua Anio Vetus, was made in Rome, citizens who resided on hillsides had to journey even further down to collect their water from natural sources. When aqueducts or springs weren’t available, people... read more