Ancient Crete & The Minoans: Outdoor Fountains

Archaeological digs in Minoan Crete in Greece have discovered some varieties of channels. They not merely helped with the water supplies, they eliminated rainwater and wastewater as well. Virtually all were made from clay or even stone. b-047__15614.jpg Terracotta was used for waterways and pipes, both rectangular and round. The cone-like and U-shaped terracotta pipes which were discovered have not been detected in any other culture. Terracotta pipes were put down underneath the floors at Knossos Palace and utilized to circulate water. The piping also had other functions such as gathering water and diverting it to a central area for storing. To make this achievable, the pipes had to be fashioned to handle: Below ground Water Transportation: Originally this particular process would seem to have been created not quite for comfort but rather to offer water to certain individuals or rites without it being observed. Quality Water Transportation: There’s also evidence that concludes the pipes being used to provide for water fountains separately of the local process.

Builders of the First Outside Garden Fountains

Frequently working as architects, sculptors, artists, engineers and discerning scholars, all in one, fountain creators were multi-faceted people from the 16th to the later part of the 18th century. Leonardo da Vinci as a creative master, inventor and scientific virtuoso exemplified this Renaissance creator. The forces of nature guided him to research the qualities and motion of water, and due to his curiosity, he methodically captured his findings in his now renowned notebooks. Coupling imaginativeness with hydraulic and horticultural talent, early Italian water feature engineers transformed private villa settings into amazing water displays loaded with emblematic meaning and natural wonder. The humanist Pirro Ligorio brought the vision behind the wonders in Tivoli and was renowned for his virtuosity in archeology, architecture and garden design. Other water fountain developers, masterminding the phenomenal water marbles, water functions and water jokes for the many mansions near Florence, were well-versed in humanistic topics and classical scientific readings.

Garden Fountains And Their Role in Public Health

The first implementation of a soda tax in the US came in February 2014, when it was passed by the city of Berkley, California. The goal is to get people drinking more water and other natural drinks by elevating the price of soda and other sugar-sweetened drinks.

Research was executed to find out the reputation of local drinking water fountains and whether people from other racial or economic backgrounds had less access to them. Via information collected by a mobile GPS app, experts were able to ascertain the condition of existing water fountains in Berkley. The US Census Community Study database was used to amass information relating to race and economic status in these segments. The analysts looked to use both data sets to figure out if demographics were connected to drinking water fountain access. The neighboring demographics of every single water fountain location was made note of, while also identifying whether race or income rates made a difference in the state of repair of each fountain. The fact that the fountains were operating was not a guarantee that they were well-maintained, as quite a few were in need of cleaning and repair.

The Role of Hydrostatics In The Design Of Garden Fountains

When in equilibrium, liquid applies energy to its container or any other material it comes in contact with. These fall into 2 categories, hydrostatic load or outside force. When applied against a level surface, the liquid exercises equal force against all points of that surface. All points on an object’s surface are affected by vertical pressure when the object is entirely submerged in a liquid that’s in a state of equilibrium. This applied force is known as buoyancy, while the principle itself is known as Archimedes’ principle. Hydrostatic pressure is created by hydrostatic force, when the force exerts itself on a point of liquid. These principles are applied to the containers used by plumbing, wells, and fountains.

A Short History of Outdoor Public Fountains

The water from creeks and other sources was initially provided to the residents of nearby communities and municipalities via water fountains, whose purpose was largely practical, not aesthetic. A supply of water higher in elevation than the fountain was required to pressurize the flow and send water spraying from the fountain's nozzle, a technology without equal until the later part of the 19th century. Inspiring and impressive, big water fountains have been designed as monuments in nearly all civilizations. When you encounter a fountain today, that is not what the first water fountains looked like. The first recognized water fountain was a stone basin carved that served as a receptacle for drinking water and ceremonial purposes. 2,000 BC is when the earliest known stone fountain basins were used. Gravity was the energy source that controlled the initial water fountains. Situated near aqueducts or creeks, the functional public water fountains supplied the local populace with fresh drinking water. Fountains with embellished Gods, mythological monsters, and animals began to show up in Rome in about 6 BC, crafted from stone and bronze. Water for the community fountains of Rome was brought to the city via a elaborate system of water aqueducts.