Free Drinking Fountains in Berkley, Ca

Berkley, CA people voted for a sugar-sweetened beverages tax in February 2014, the first of its kind in the United States. By taxing sugary drinks, the city hopes to inspire a lot more people to choose healthier options, such as water. cs_137_natural_stone__91914.jpg Research was executed to find out the status of local drinking water fountains and whether individuals from other racial or financial backgrounds had less access to them. Through content collected by a mobile GPS app, experts were able to ascertain the state of active water fountains in Berkley. The US Census Community Study database was used to amass information related to race and economic status in these segments. Comparisons were made between the location and demographic data, disclosing whether class differences affected access to clean, functional water fountains. They were in a position to confirm the demographics of regions surrounding existing fountains, as well as the cleanliness and maintenance of fountains across different areas. While the bulk of the fountains were in working order, an escalating number were discovered to be in a bad state of repairs.

How Technical Designs And Styles of Water Fountains Spread

Dissiminating practical hydraulic knowledge and water feature design ideas throughout Europe was accomplished with the written papers and illustrated publications of the time. A globally recognized pioneer in hydraulics in the late 1500's was a French water fountain engineer, whose name has been lost to history. With imperial mandates in Brussels, London and Germany, he started his work in Italy, building know-how in garden design and grottoes with built-in and ingenious water features. The publication, “The Principles of Moving Forces,” authored towards the end of his life in France, turned out to be the fundamental writing on hydraulic mechanics and engineering. Updating vital hydraulic breakthroughs of classical antiquity, the book also details contemporary hydraulic technologies. As a mechanized means to shift water, Archimedes invented the water screw, fundamental among vital hydraulic advancements. Natural light heated the liquid in two hidden containers adjacent to the ornamental water feature were shown in an illustration.

Activating the fountain is hot water which expands and ascends to seal up the water lines. Pumps, water wheels, water attributes and garden pond styles are documented in the book.

Characteristics of Outdoor Statuary in Archaic Greece

Up right up until the Archaic Greeks created the 1st freestanding sculpture, a noteworthy success, carvings had chiefly been accomplished in walls and pillars as reliefs. Youthful, appealing male or female (kore) Greeks were the subject matter of most of the sculptures, or kouros figures. The kouroi were believed by the Greeks to embody beauty and were sculpted with one foot leading and an uncompromising rigidity to their forward-facing poses; the male statues were always strapping, brawny, and naked. Life-sized versions of the kouroi appeared beginning in 650 BC. During the Archaic time, a great time of changes, the Greeks were evolving new types of government, expressions of art, and a greater comprehension of people and cultures outside Greece. During this time and other times of historical tumult, clashes often happened, most notably battles fought amongst city-states such as the Arcadian wars and the Spartan invasion of Samos.

Water Features: The Minoan Culture

A variety of sorts of conduits have been discovered through archaeological excavations on the isle of Crete, the cradle of Minoan civilization. They were used for water supply as well as removal of storm water and wastewater. The majority were prepared from terracotta or rock. Terracotta was employed for canals and water pipes, both rectangular and round. There are a couple of illustrations of Minoan clay piping, those with a shortened cone shape and a U-shape that have not been observed in any civilization since that time. Knossos Palace had an sophisticated plumbing network made of clay pipes which ran up to three meters under ground. The terracotta water lines were also made use of for gathering and saving water. In order to make this achievable, the conduits had to be fashioned to handle: Underground Water Transportation: This hidden method for water distribution may have been chosen to furnish water to specific individuals or activities.

Quality Water Transportation: Many historians consider that these water lines were employed to generate a different distribution process for the castle.

Water-lifting Tool by Camillo Agrippa

Unfortuitously, Agrippa’s excellent design for lifting water was not cited much following 1588, when Andrea Bacci praised it in public. It might have come to be obsolete when the Villa Medici was enabled to receive water from the Acqua Felice, the early contemporary channel, in 1592. Although its triumph was passing, Camillo Agrippa’s planning for lifting water was the marvel of its day, exceeding anything built in Italy since the days of ancient Rome. It could defy the force of gravity to lift water to Renaissance gardens, supplying them in a way other late sixteenth century concepts which include scenographic water exhibits, melodious water fountains and giochi d’acqua or water caprices, were not.


Agrippa's Eye-popping, but Mostly Forgotten Water-Lifting Technology
In 1588, Agrippa’s water-lifting discovery lured the interest and admiration of Andrea Bacci but that turned out to be one of the last references of the mechanism. It could be that in 1592 when Rome’s latest aqueduct, the Acqua Felice, set about... read more
Characteristics of Outdoor Statues in Archaic Greece
The initial freestanding statuary was improved by the Archaic Greeks, a recognized accomplishment since until then the sole carvings in existence were reliefs cut into walls and columns. For the most part the statues, or kouros figures, were of... read more
The Earliest Documented Water Features of History
Water fountains were originally practical in function, used to bring water from rivers or creeks to towns and villages, supplying the inhabitants with clean water to drink, bathe, and prepare food with. In the... read more
The Original Outdoor Fountains of Human History
The water from springs and other sources was initially provided to the occupants of nearby towns and municipalities via water fountains, whose purpose was primarily practical, not aesthetic. To make water flow through a fountain until... read more