The Major Characteristics of Classic Greek Statues

The primitive Greeks manufactured the first freestanding statuary, an impressive achievement as most sculptures up until then had been reliefs cut into walls and pillars. Most of these freestanding sculptures were what is known as kouros figures, statues of young, attractive male or female (kore) Greeks. The kouroi were believed by the Greeks to typify beauty and were sculpted with one foot leading and an uncompromising firmness to their forward-facing poses; the male statues were always strapping, sinewy, and undressing. Life-sized versions of the kouroi appeared beginning in 650 BC. brk-371__64042.jpg The Archaic period was tumultuous for the Greeks as they evolved into more sophisticated forms of government and art, and acquired more data about the peoples and civilizations outside of Greece. The Arcadian conflicts, the Spartan penetration of Samos, and other wars between city-states are good examples of the sorts of conflicts that arose frequently, which is consistent with other times of historical change.

Rome’s First Water Transport Solutions

Rome’s very first elevated aqueduct, Aqua Anio Vetus, was built in 273 BC; before that, residents living at higher elevations had to depend on local streams for their water. When aqueducts or springs weren’t available, people dwelling at higher elevations turned to water drawn from underground or rainwater, which was made available by wells and cisterns. Beginning in the sixteenth century, a newer system was introduced, using Acqua Vergine’s subterranean sectors to deliver water to Pincian Hill. Through its initial construction, pozzi (or manholes) were located at set intervals along the aqueduct’s channel. The manholes made it more straightforward to clean the channel, but it was also possible to use buckets to remove water from the aqueduct, as we witnessed with Cardinal Marcello Crescenzi when he operated the property from 1543 to 1552, the year he died. Even though the cardinal also had a cistern to accumulate rainwater, it couldn't provide enough water. Fortunately, the aqueduct sat directly below his property, and he had a shaft established to give him accessibility.

Select from Any Number of Outdoor Wall Fountain Styles

Wall fountains are well suited to little verandas or yards because they do not take up too much space while also adding a bit of style and providing a great place to find peace and quiet. Conventional, antique, contemporary, or Asian are just some of the designs you can choose from when looking for an outdoor wall fountain to your liking. While there are innumerable prefabricated ones on the market, you may need a custom-built fountain if none of these are pleasing to you.

The two kinds of fountains available to you are mounted and stand-alone models. You can hang a mounted wall fountain because they are little and self-contained. Fountains of this type need to be lightweight, therefore, they are usually fabricated from resin (resembling stone) or fiberglass. Floor fountains are freestanding, sizable, and also have a basin on the ground as well as a flat side against the wall. Water features such as these are usually manufactured of cast stone and have no weight limitations.

Landscape designers often recommend a custom-built fountain for a brand new or existing wall. Placing the basin against the wall and installing all the plumbing work needs a professional mason to do it correctly. It is also necessary to include a spout or fountain mask to build it into the wall. The unified look provided by custom-made wall fountains make them appear to be part of the scenery rather than an afterthought.

The Original Public Water Fountains

Villages and communities depended on practical water fountains to channel water for preparing food, washing, and cleaning up from nearby sources like lakes, channels, or springs. A source of water higher in elevation than the fountain was needed to pressurize the flow and send water squirting from the fountain's spout, a system without equal until the later part of the 19th century. The appeal and wonder of fountains make them ideal for historic memorials. Crude in style, the very first water fountains didn't look much like modern-day fountains. Basic stone basins created from nearby material were the original fountains, used for religious functions and drinking water. The initial stone basins are suspected to be from around 2000 BC. The force of gravity was the power source that operated the oldest water fountains. Situated near reservoirs or springs, the practical public water fountains furnished the local population with fresh drinking water. Fountains with elaborate decoration began to show up in Rome in approx. 6 B.C., commonly gods and animals, made with stone or bronze. The extraordinary aqueducts of Rome supplied water to the incredible public fountains, most of which you can go see today.

Outdoor Fountains And Obesity

The first US city to implement a tax on sweet drinks was Berkley, California in February 2014. The taxation is supposed to lower sugary drink intake and enhance the consumption of healthier beverages, including water from fountains. Research was conducted to find out the reputation of local drinking water fountains and whether people from different racial or economical backgrounds had less access to them. The study utilized a GPS app to gather data on existing water fountains in the city.

Analysts then used US Census data to find out even more about the economic and racial elements that impacted the city. By cross-referencing the water fountain locations with the demographic facts, they were in a position to establish whether access to functioning fountains was class dependent. The neighboring demographics of each water fountain location was made note of, while additionally identifying whether race or income levels made a difference in the state of repair of each fountain. The cleanliness of numerous fountains was found inadequate, even if most were functioning.


California's Garden Water Fountains Research and Results
The very first US city to pass a tax on high calorie drinks was Berkley, California in February 2014. The goal is to have people drinking more water and other natural drinks by elevating the price tag of soda and... read more
Agrippa’s Marvelous Water-lifting Machine
Though the machine created by Agrippa for moving water attained the admiration of Andrea Bacci in 1588, it seemed to fade not very long after. It may be... read more
The First Documented Fountains of the Historical Past
As originally conceived, fountains were crafted to be practical, directing water from creeks or aqueducts to the citizens of towns and villages, where the water could be utilized for cooking, cleaning, and drinking. The force of gravity was the power source of water... read more
The Myriad Designs of Wall Water Fountains
Landscape professionals often propose a custom-built fountain for a brand new or existing wall. Employing an expert mason is your best option to build ... read more