Free Water Fountains Around Berkley, Ca

The 1st American city to pass a tax on high calorie drinks was Berkley, California in February 2014. cs_132_aged_stone__09910.jpg By taxing sugary drinks, the city hopes to encourage more people to choose healthier options, such as water. Research was completed to assure that citizens of all races and economic classes had access to clean, operating drinking fountains. By developing a mobile GPS application, experts were able to gather data on Berkley’s drinking water fountains. Analysts then used US Census data to find out more about the economic and racial elements that impacted the city. The two data sets were compared to identify what class disparities, if any, there were in access to operating water fountains. They were in a position to uncover the demographics of locations surrounding established fountains, as well as the cleanliness and upkeep of fountains across different communities. While the greater part of the fountains were in working order, an appalling quantity were found to be in a bad state of repairs.

The Dispersion of Water Feature Design Knowledge

The published papers and illustrated publications of the day contributed to the evolution of scientific innovation, and were the primary methods of dissiminating practical hydraulic information and water feature ideas throughout Europe. A globally recognized pioneer in hydraulics in the late 1500's was a French fountain designer, whose name has been lost to history. With Royal mandates in Brussels, London and Germany, he began his career in Italy, acquiring experience in garden design and grottoes with integrated and imaginative water hydraulics. “The Principles of Moving Forces”, a guide that turned into the fundamental book on hydraulic mechanics and engineering, was authored by him towards the end of his lifetime in France. Classical antiquity hydraulic developments were outlined as well as revisions to essential classical antiquity hydraulic breakthroughs in the book. Archimedes, the inventor of the water screw, had his work highlighted and these included a mechanical means to move water. Two hidden vessels warmed by sunlight in a area adjacent to the creative water fountain were shown in an illustration. Actuating the water fountain is heated liquid which expands and ascends to close up the water lines. The book furthermore mentions garden ponds, water wheels, water feature designs.

Garden Fountains: The Minoan Culture

On the Greek island of Crete, excavations have unearthed conduits of different sorts. They were used for water supply as well as removal of storm water and wastewater. The majority were prepared from clay or stone. Terracotta was selected for canals and conduits, both rectangular and round. There are two examples of Minoan clay conduits, those with a shortened cone form and a U-shape which have not been caught in any civilization ever since.

Terracotta pipes were put down underneath the floor surfaces at Knossos Palace and used to distribute water. These Minoan conduits were also used for collecting and storing water, not just distribution. Therefore, these piping had to be ready to: Underground Water Transportation: This particular system’s invisible nature may suggest that it was primarily planned for some kind of ritual or to allocate water to limited communities. Quality Water Transportation: Many historians feel that these conduits were utilized to generate a separate distribution technique for the palace.

"Old School" Garden Fountain Designers

Multi-talented people, fountain designers from the 16th to the late 18th century frequently functioned as architects, sculptors, artists, engineers and highly educated scholars all in one person. Exemplifying the Renaissance artist as a imaginative legend, Leonardo da Vinci performed as an innovator and scientific expert. He carefully documented his examinations in his now famed notebooks about his research into the forces of nature and the qualities and mobility of water. Remodeling private villa configurations into amazing water exhibits full of symbolic interpretation and natural wonder, early Italian water feature engineers fused imagination with hydraulic and horticultural ability. The humanist Pirro Ligorio offered the vision behind the splendors in Tivoli and was celebrated for his virtuosity in archeology, architecture and garden concepts. Well versed in humanistic themes and classic technical readings, other fountain creators were masterminding the extraordinary water marbles, water properties and water antics for the various properties around Florence.

The Main Characteristics of Ancient Greek Sculpture

The primitive Greeks developed the very first freestanding statuary, an awesome achievement as most sculptures up until then had been reliefs cut into walls and pillars. Kouros figures, sculptures of adolescent, attractive male or female (kore) Greeks, made up the bulk of the sculptures. Representing beauty to the Greeks, the kouroi were crafted to appear stiff and typically had foot forward; the males were vigorous, strong, and nude. In about 650 BC, the varieties of the kouroi became life-sized. The Archaic period was an awesome time of transformation for the Greeks as they grew into new forms of government, created fresh expressions of art, and attained insights of the people and cultures outside of Greece. But in spite of the issues, the Greek civilization went on to advance, unabated.

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