Aqueducts: The Solution to Rome's Water Problems

a_525__07264.jpg Prior to 273, when the very first elevated aqueduct, Aqua Anio Vetus, was built in Roma, residents who resided on hillsides had to journey further down to get their water from natural sources. Outside of these aqueducts and springs, wells and rainwater-collecting cisterns were the lone technological innovations around at the time to supply water to segments of greater elevation. To offer water to Pincian Hill in the early 16th century, they employed the brand-new tactic of redirecting the stream from the Acqua Vergine aqueduct’s underground channel. Through its original building and construction, pozzi (or manholes) were added at set intervals alongside the aqueduct’s channel. While these manholes were manufactured to make it simpler and easier to protect the aqueduct, it was also feasible to use buckets to remove water from the channel, which was utilized by Cardinal Marcello Crescenzi from the time he purchased the property in 1543 to his death in 1552. Although the cardinal also had a cistern to amass rainwater, it couldn't supply a sufficient amount of water. That is when he made the decision to create an access point to the aqueduct that ran below his property.

The Early, Unappreciated Water-Moving System

The compliments Agrippa’s water-lifting creation earned from Andrea Bacci in 1588 was temporary. It could be that in 1592 when Rome’s most recent conduit, the Acqua Felice, set about supplying the Villa Medici, there was simply no longer very much need for the unit. Its usage might have been limited but Camillo Agrippa’s innovation occupied a large place in history as the most remarkable water-lifting hardware of its kind in Italy prior to the contemporary era. Renaissance gardens of the late sixteenth century happened to be home to works including musical water fountains, scenographic water displays and water caprices (giochi d’acqua), but these weren’t outfitted with water in ways that defied gravitation itself.

Ancient Fountain Designers

Multi-talented individuals, fountain designers from the 16th to the late 18th century often functioned as architects, sculptors, artists, engineers and highly educated scholars all in one person. Throughout the Renaissance, Leonardo da Vinci exemplified the artist as a creative genius, creator and scientific virtuoso. He carefully reported his examinations in his now much celebrated notebooks about his investigations into the forces of nature and the properties and motion of water. Remodeling private villa configurations into amazing water exhibits packed of symbolic interpretation and natural beauty, early Italian water feature creators combined imagination with hydraulic and horticultural abilities. The humanist Pirro Ligorio provided the vision behind the wonders in Tivoli and was distinguished for his abilities in archeology, architecture and garden design.

For the assorted lands in the vicinity of Florence, other water feature engineers were well versed in humanist topics as well as classical scientific texts, masterminding the excellent water marbles, water features and water antics.

Exterior Wall Fountains: The Numerous Styles Available

Wall fountains are well suited to small verandas or gardens because they do not require too much space while also adding a touch of style and providing a great place to find peace and quiet. The multitude of designs in outdoor wall fountains, including traditional, classic, contemporary, or Asian, means that you can find the one suitable to your tastes. Your tastes dictate the type you buy so while there may not be a prefabricated fountain to satisfy you, you do have the option of having a custom made one.

Mounted and stand-alone water features are obtainable on the market. Small, self-contained models can be placed on a wall are called mounted wall fountains. Wall fountains made of resin ( similar to stone) or fiberglass are normally light so they can be easily hung. Sizable free-standing wall fountains, commonly referred to as floor fountains, have their basins positioned on the floor and a flat side leaning on a wall. Typically made of cast stone, these water features have no weight restrictions.

It is a good idea to incorporate a customized fountain into a new or existing wall, something often suggested by landscape experts. Installing the basin against the wall and installing all the plumbing work needs a expert mason to do it right. A fountain mask or a spout also needs to be integrated into the wall. The unified look provided by custom-made wall fountains make them appear to be part of the landscape rather than an afterthought.

The Circulation of Garden Water Fountains Engineering Knowledge in Europe

Instrumental to the advancement of scientific technology were the printed papers and illustrated publications of the day. They were also the principal method of transferring useful hydraulic information and fountain design ideas all through Europe. An un-named French water feature designer was an internationally famed hydraulic innovator in the late 1500's. By creating gardens and grottoes with integrated and amazing water attributes, he began his career in Italy by getting imperial commissions in Brussels, London and Germany. He wrote a publication titled “The Principles of Moving Forces” toward the end of his life while in France that turned into the basic text on hydraulic technology and engineering.

The publication updated important hydraulic discoveries since classical antiquity as well as describing modern day hydraulic technologies. Dominant among these works were those of Archimedes, the creator of the water screw, a mechanical means of transferring water. Natural light warmed the water in two undetectable vessels adjacent to the ornamental fountain were shown in an illustration. Actuating the water fountain is hot liquid which expands and rises to seal up the conduits. Yard ponds as well as pumps, water wheels, and water feature styles are incorporated in the publication.


The Distribution of Garden Water Fountains Manufacturing Knowledge in Europe
Throughout the European countries, the primary means of dissiminating useful hydraulic facts and fountain design ideas were the circulated papers and illustrated books of the time, which contributed to the development... read more
Creators of the First Garden Fountains
Often working as architects, sculptors, designers, engineers and discerning scholars, all in one, fountain creators were multi-talented individuals from the 16th to the late 18th century. Throughout the... read more
Cultural Statuary in Early Greece
Historically, most sculptors were compensated by the temples to embellish the involved pillars and archways with renderings of the gods, however... read more