Water-raising System by Camillo Agrippa

Unfortunately, Agrippa’s wonderful design for lifting water wasn’t discussed a great deal following 1588, when Andrea Bacci acclaimed it publicly. aq_78211__08842.jpg It may have turned out to be dated when the Villa Medici was enabled to receive water from the Acqua Felice, the early contemporary conduit, in 1592. The more likely conclusion is that the system was abandoned once Franceso di Medici, Ferdinando’s brotherexpired in 1588, leading him to give up his position as cardinal and return to Florence where he received the throne as the Grand Duke of Tuscany. While there were various other worthwhile water-driven creations either designed or built during the latter part of the sixteenth century, such as scenographic water exhibits, giochi d’acqua or water caprices, and melodious fountains, not one were nourished by water like Agrippa’s system.

Characteristics of Outdoor Statuary in Archaic Greece

The initial freestanding statuary was designed by the Archaic Greeks, a recognized accomplishment since until then the only carvings in existence were reliefs cut into walls and pillars. Most of these freestanding sculptures were what is known as kouros figures, statues of young, attractive male or female (kore) Greeks. Thought of by Greeks to represent beauty, the kouroi were formed into inflexible, forward facing positions with one foot outstretched, and the male statues were usually nude, well-developed, and athletic. In around 650 BC, the variations of the kouroi became life-sized. The Archaic period was turbulent for the Greeks as they progressed into more sophisticated forms of federal government and art, and obtained more data about the peoples and civilizations outside of Greece. Comparable to many other periods of historical conflict, disagreements were common, and there were struggles between city-states like The Arcadian wars, the Spartan invasion of Samos.

Bernini's Fountains

There are countless renowned water features in Rome’s city center. One of the most distinguished sculptors and designers of the 17th century, Gian Lorenzo Bernini designed, created and built nearly all of them. His abilities as a water feature designer and also as a city designer, are obvious throughout the roads of Rome. Bernini's father, a renowned Florentine sculptor, guided his young son, and they ultimately settled in Rome, to fully express their art in the form of public water features and water features. An excellent employee, the young Bernini acquired compliments and the backing of various popes and influential artists. Originally he was renowned for his sculpting skills. Most notably in the Vatican, he utilized a base of expertise in classic Greek architecture and melded it flawlessly with Roman marble.

Though many artists had an influence on his work, Michelangelo had the most profound effect.

The Function of Hydrostatics In The Design Of Outside Garden Fountains

All liquids in a state of equilibrium exert pressure on the materials it comes in contact with. The force used falls into one of two categories: external force or hydrostatic energy. The force applied by the liquid against a level wall is equal at each point where it makes contact with the wall. Liquid in equilibrium will employ vertical pressure at every point of an object’s exterior when that object is fully submerged in the liquid. These vertical forces are buoyancy, and the concept itself is more fully described by Archimedes’principle. Generally, hydrostatic pressure on a point of liquid is a product of the hydrostatic force exerted on it. A city’s water supply system, fountains, and artesian wells are all examples of the application of these principles on containers.

Aqueducts: The Answer to Rome's Water Problems

With the construction of the very first raised aqueduct in Rome, the Aqua Anio Vetus in 273 BC, people who lived on the city’s hillsides no longer had to depend exclusively on naturally-occurring spring water for their demands. Outside of these aqueducts and springs, wells and rainwater-collecting cisterns were the only technological innovations available at the time to supply water to locations of greater elevation. To furnish water to Pincian Hill in the early sixteenth century, they employed the brand-new process of redirecting the movement from the Acqua Vergine aqueduct’s underground channel. As originally constructed, the aqueduct was provided along the length of its channel with pozzi (manholes) constructed at regular intervals. During the roughly nine years he possessed the property, from 1543 to 1552, Cardinal Marcello Crescenzi used these manholes to take water from the network in buckets, though they were previously designed for the purpose of cleaning and maintenance the aqueduct. Apparently, the rainwater cistern on his property wasn’t enough to meet his needs. To give himself with a much more efficient means to obtain water, he had one of the manholes opened, giving him access to the aqueduct below his residence.


The Distribution of Water Fountain Industrial Knowledge in Europe
The circulated reports and illustrated books of the day contributed to the advancements of scientific technology, and were the chief means of transmitting practical hydraulic facts... read more
"Old School" Fountain Creative Designers
Water feature designers were multi-talented individuals from the 16th to the later part of the 18th century, often working as architects, sculptors, artists, engineers and highly educated... read more
Garden Fountain Engineers Through History
Often serving as architects, sculptors, designers, engineers and cultivated scholars, all in one, fountain creators were multi-talented people from the 16th to the... read more
Garden Water Fountain Builders Through History
Commonly working as architects, sculptors, designers, engineers and discerning scholars, all in one, fountain designers were multi-talented individuals from the 16th to the later part of the 18th... read more
Fountain Builders Through History
Water feature designers were multi-talented individuals from the 16th to the later part of the 18th century, often working as architects, sculptors, artists, engineers and highly educated scholars all in one person. Leonardo da Vinci, a Renaissance artist, was... read more
The Early Society: Garden Fountains
Fountains and Water and the Minoan Civilization These furnished water and removed it, including water from waste and deluges. Virtually all... read more